General surgery and laparoscopy

3/5/2023 | 185

General Surgery is a branch of medical science that deals with the treatment of various parts of the human body by relying on the use of surgical therapies. The emphasis is on traumas, gastrointestinal, abdominal, neck, endocrine, peripheral vessels, soft tissues, and breast.

Laparoscopy is a technique for introspection of the abdomen and pelvis. Often laparoscopy is a diagnostic procedure, but it can also be a treatment, such as laparoscopic appendectomy or laparoscopic cotosisthectomy. In this method, the doctor sees the abdomen with a camera tube (without opening the abdomen). This tube is inserted into the umbilical cord under a general anesthetic by creating a very small hole. Laparoscopy can detect other causes of menstrual pain, such as endometriosis, pelvic adhesions, fibroids, ovarian cysts, and even ectopic pregnancy, and can be treated in some cases.

A number of diseases that are treated with this method in Dr. Mousavi hospital: 



An appendectomy is surgery to remove the appendix when it is infected. This condition is called appendicitis. Appendectomy is a common emergency surgery. The appendix is a thin pouch that is attached to the large intestine. It sits in the lower right part of your belly. If you have appendicitis, your appendix must be removed right away. If not treated, your appendix can burst. This is a medical emergency. There are 2 types of surgery to remove the appendix. The standard method is an open appendectomy. A newer, less invasive method is a laparoscopic appendectomy.

Open appendectomy: A cut or incision about 2 to 4 inches long is made in the lower right-hand side of your belly or abdomen. The appendix is taken out through the incision.

Laparoscopic appendectomy: This method is less invasive. That means it’s done without a large incision. Instead, from 1 to 3 tiny cuts are made. A long, thin tube called a laparoscope is put into one of the incisions. It has a tiny video camera and surgical tools. The surgeon looks at a TV monitor to see inside your abdomen and guide the tools. The appendix is removed through one of the incisions. During a laparoscopic surgery, your provider may decide that an open appendectomy is needed.

If your appendix has burst and infection has spread, you may need an open appendectomy. A laparoscopic appendectomy may cause less pain and scarring than an open appendectomy. For either type of surgery, the scar is often hard to see once it has healed. Both types of surgery have low risk of complications. A laparoscopic appendectomy has a shorter hospital stay, shorter recovery time, and lower infection rates.



Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (Gallbladder Removal)

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is minimally invasive surgery to remove the gallbladder. It helps people when gallstones cause inflammation, pain or infection. The surgery involves a few small incisions, and most people go home the same day and soon return to normal activities. Call your healthcare provider if you have any problems after surgery. A hernia happens when an internal part of the body pushes through a weakness in the muscle or surrounding tissue wall.



Inguinal hernia surgery

Your muscles are usually strong and tight enough to keep your intestines and organs in place, but a hernia can develop if there are any weak spots. What happens during surgery? There are 2 ways an inguinal hernia repair can be performed: 

open surgery: where a cut is made to allow the surgeon to push the lump back into the abdomen

laparoscopic (keyhole) surgery: a less invasive, but more difficult, technique where several smaller cuts are made, allowing the surgeon to use instruments to repair the hernia

There are advantages and disadvantages to both methods. The type of surgery you have depends on which method suits you, and your surgeon's experience. You should be able to go home the same day or the day after surgery. It's important to follow the instructions you're given while in hospital about how to look after yourself. This includes eating a good diet to avoid constipation, caring for the wound, and avoiding strenuous activities.Most people make a full recovery from inguinal hernia repair within 6 weeks, with many being able to return to work and light activities within 2 weeks.

Ask your surgeon or GP for advice on when it's safe for you to drive again. You should also speak to your insurer before driving again after having surgery.




A hemorrhoidectomy is surgery to remove internal or external hemorrhoids that are extensive or severe. Surgical hemorrhoidectomy is the most effective treatment for hemorrhoids, though it is associated with the greatest rate of complications. Types of hemorrhoidectomies and related procedures performed during surgery:

Closed Hemorrhoidectomy

Open Hemorrhoidectomy

Stapled Hemorrhoidectomy (Procedure for Prolapse and Hemorrhoids - PPH) 

Rubber band Ligation

Lateral Internal Sphincterotomy




A mastectomy is surgery to remove a breast. Sometimes other tissues near the breast, such as lymph nodes, are also removed. This surgery is most often used to treat breast cancer. In some cases, a mastectomy is done to help prevent breast cancer in women who have a high risk for it. Why might I need a mastectomy?

A mastectomy may be done as part of treatment for breast cancer. Your doctor will likely advise you to have a mastectomy if:

The tumor is large

The tumor involves more than 1 area of your breast

Using radiation therapy is not advised. The size of your breast may also help determine the type of mastectomy that is done. In some cases, women with a high risk for breast cancer may want to have a mastectomy before cancer develops. This includes women with genes linked to breast cancer, such as the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. In these cases, a mastectomy is done to try to keep breast cancer from occurring. There may be other reasons for your doctor to recommend a mastectomy.



Physicians residing in this area:


Dr. Seyed Hashem Mousavi
General Surgery and Breast Cancer Specialist and Head of Hospital

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Dr. Abdolreza Fazel
General surgeon, surgical oncology fellowship

Associate Professor of GOUMS

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Dr. Sina Safamanesh
General Clinical Surgeon and Advanced Fellowship Laparoscopy from the University of Tehran

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Dr. Mohammadreza Hashempour
Specialist general surgeon, beauty, laparoscopy

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